Pre-decisional distortion is produced when decision makers who are presented new information interpret it in favor of the choice that was leading in attractiveness. This distortion of information has been demonstrated in previous literature but not with shoes as the purchasing variable and not with athlete endorsement, athlete identity, or temporal discounting incorporated. This was a survey study that had 208 participants from the United States to help test pre-decisional distortion in shoes and how those other variables interacted within it. The results yielded the presence of pre-decisional distortion in shoes by utilizing descriptive statistics, two ANOVAs, and a correlations table. These results add to the pre-decisional distortion body of research, it sheds light on areas of advertising and athlete endorsement that may prove valuable to the marketing sector, and it shows that in general it is not always the endorsement that matters but rather at which point the endorsement is presented to the customer when selling.


Wilhelms, Evan




Industrial and Organizational Psychology


Pre-Decisional Distortion, Sales, Athlete Endorsements

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



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