This thesis focuses on a cross-cultural examination of the processes of beer making and the links between social status, gender, and scale within beer production and usage. The three unique ancient cultures examined are: The Celts at Hochdorf in Southwest Germany, the predynastic Egyptians at Hierakonpolis, and the Wari at Cerro Baúl in Perú. Together, these constitute rather diverse contexts for ancient brewing processes which enhance our understanding of the complexities of the production and consumption of fermenting beverages in antiquity. Additionally, I discuss the the ways in which the process of brewing beer can be teased out of the archaeological record by using macrobotanical flotation, residue analyses via mass spectrometry, ethnoarchaeological research, and experimental archaeology to name a few methods. To conduct this research, I employ a variety of existing studies deriving from archaeological and ethnoarchaeological data on beer brewing from each of these contexts.


Navarro-Farr, Olivia




Archaeological Anthropology

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



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