Message framing has been shown to have an impact on different health messages. To further understand what message frame is most beneficial with what specific behaviors, a study was conducted focusing on message farming along with construal level. Message framing has been described as having a general impact on behavior. Specifically gain-frames messages have been shown to have an advantage with low-risk behaviors while loss-frames messages having an advantage with high-risk behaviors. When message frame is studied along with construal level there seems to be a different effect. Some studies have found that loss-frame has the advantage with low risk behaviors when construal level is also present as concrete or abstract thinking. In the present study, message frame and construal level were the measures used to determine their impact on the health behavior of consuming water. Participants read one of four different messages each having a different message frame (how/gain, how/loss, why/gain, or why/loss). They were then asked questions specifically dealing with the dependent measures of 1) their anxiety level, 2) behavioral intention, 3) efficacy, 4) persuasion, and its effect upon their current water consumption. Results showed that none of the dependent measures had any significant impactupon an individual’s water consumption.


Stuart, Jillian




message framing, construal level, gain-frame, loss-frame, high construal, low construal, prospect theory, theory of planned behavior

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



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