The ability to read is an essential skill that has been proven critical to education and everyday life. The present study compares two different reading classroom instructions and student’s rate of improvement. The independent variable included student’s reading instruction. Conditions included first, second and third grade students in a mainstream reading instruction and first, second and third grade students in a pull-out reading intervention instruction. The nature of Response-to-Intervention and the purpose of this pull-out reading intervention for at-risk readers, led this study to predict that the pull-out reading intervention group would demonstrate a higher rate of improvement than students in the mainstream classroom. Along with the rate of improvement hypothesis, this study predicted that students in the pull-out intervention would score significantly more positive reading attitude scores and that a student’s rate of improvement would correlate with their score on the reading attitude survey. Pre-and post-assessment data was collected after obtaining permission from Wooster Township Elementary and the assessments were not administered or created for this study. This study used existing data from the AIMSweb reading assessments that are apart of Wooster Township’s regular school year testing schedule. This study did administer the reading attitude survey, which was specific to the study, during the same time the students were taking their post AIMSweb assessments. Specific analyses found that there was no significant difference between condition’s rate of improvement and only mainstream first grade students demonstrated a significant positive correlation between their rate of improvement and reading attitude scores.


Hartin, Travis


Education; Psychology


Early Childhood Education | Educational Psychology | Psychology | School Psychology


at-risk readers, pull-out intervention, response-to-intervention, reading attitude

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



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