In an extension of research on aggressive behavior and testosterone, the present study experimentally examines the effects sport participation and testosterone can have on aggression. Participants of the study were tested in three groups: contact sport athlete, non-contact sport athlete, and non-athlete. It was hypothesized that contact sport athletes would demonstrate more aggressive behaviors than non-contact sport athletes and non- athletes. It was also hypothesized that men, in general, with a lower 2D:4D ratio (meaning they were exposed to more testosterone prenatally) would have a higher aggressive score. The data found did not support the first hypothesis, where contact sport athletes did not have the highest mean aggression score of the three groups, but the non- athlete group did: Non-athlete group (M = 2.81), Contact athlete group (M = 2.62), and Non-contact group (M = 2.52). The data found did support the second hypothesis, where males with a lower 2D:4D ratio had higher aggression scores. A significant interaction between group and finger length was found, F (2, 38) = 7.13, p = .002, η2 = .64. The present research has opened a door for future experiments to adjust and try with different measures.


Gillund, Gary




Experimental Analysis of Behavior | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



© Copyright 2016 Matthew E. Margida