This study examines the characteristics of planned unit developments (PUDs), neighborhoods of single-family detached homes built according to a master plan. PUDs also have areas in which all homeowners share ownership, have mandatory homeowner associations, and have deed restrictions which include covenants, conditions, and restrictions. The purpose of this study is to determine whether PUDs are exclusionary on the bases of race, social class, and income. In order to determine if PUDs are exclusionary, it is imperative to study the demographics of each PUD and the cities in which they are located. This study focuses on the planned unit developments in Summit County, Ohio. There are several necessary factors contributing to the methodology of this case study. First, a statistical overview of Summit County offers information regarding exclusion in the county as a whole, providing a foundation for the examination of exclusion in each PUD. Next, the descriptive data of forty PUDs in Summit County are studied in comparison to their respective cities. This data collection method acknowledges common characteristics found among residents as well as helps to detect of patterns found in each PUD. Personal interviews with real estate agents were conducted in order to determine such information as residential location choice and the effects of PUDs on housing in the region of Summit County. Using the 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing data, an indirect test of exclusion was performed in order to determine how the residents of Summit County value the characteristics of where they choose to live. It is necessary to combine these methods in order to accurately study exclusion in planned unit developments. The findings of this case study suggest that PUDs are no more exclusionary on the basis of race than the cities in which they are located, unless the PUD is in an urbanized area. However, they are exclusionary on the basis of social class because educational attainment levels are higher among residents of PUDs in comparison to the residents of each city as a whole. The levels of education of these residents directly affect their levels of income. Therefore, planned unit developments are also exclusionary on the basis of income. PUDs have a greater representation of income than the cities in which they are located, suggesting that the PUDs may in fact be exclusionary.


Burnell, James

Second Advisor

Moskowitz, Eric


Urban Studies

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis

Available for download on Thursday, January 01, 2150

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© Copyright 1997 Denise M. Drescher