This study is intended to investigate fortification walls dated to the Early Bronze Age in the Levant. The lands of Canaan and Judah in the Southern Levant are situated between larger and more populated societies. The application of World-systems analysis to sites with fortification walls in this geographic area may allow a unique insight into the political systems at work in the region and the formation of early states. I discuss the site of Tell es-Safi, where I have participated in excavations for the past two summers. The fortifications at Tell es-Safi serve as a general comparison for other sites in the southern Levant. Comparisons of various sites from different cultural contexts showcases a variety of construction strategies tailored to their specific needs as a community. Differences in fortifications at a variety of sites may be attributed to their diverse locations, available resources, political structure, or cultural beliefs. These variables have the capacity to create very different fortifications at different sites. World-systems analysis may explain the differences in construction strategies as well as unveil a broader understanding of Early Bronze Age fortifications in the Levant.


Kardulias, P. Nicholas




Islamic World and Near East History | Near Eastern Languages and Societies | Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology | Theory and Criticism


Levant, fortification, world-systems, archaeology, Canaan, Egypt, Mesopotamia

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



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