For the ancient Egyptians, preparations for the afterlife were not to be taken lightly, especially since to them religion and daily life were deeply intertwined. In their minds, there was a balance to everything and if proper rituals were not followed, chaos would ensue. Death was merely another stage in their lives, and as a result, they were not only concerned with taking care of their physical bodies, but their spiritual aspects as well. Despite what popular culture may lead some to believe, not all Egyptians had the ability to create lavish tombs and coffins, using precious materials such as gold, to help ensure that they would have a pleasant afterlife. Therefore, to balance the attention that has often been paid to royal tombs and coffins, I study scenes involving the offering of gifts, which are found on tombs and coffins of non-royals from the New Kingdom (ca. 1550-1069 BC) through the Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC). In particular, I look to see how despite artistic limitations which were imposed by the rulers themselves, individuals were able to have coffins and tombs created which not only reflect the way in which they were influenced by prevailing social thought, but also how they were able to have works created which took care of their own individual needs. I also examine the manner in which factors such as political activities of the time, religious beliefs, and the individual's own preferences influenced several tombs and coffins which were produced from the New Kingdom to the Ptolemaic Period.


Kardulias, P. Nicholas

Second Advisor

Morrow, Kara


Archaeology; Art and Art History


Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Art and Architecture | Archaeological Anthropology

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis



© Copyright 2012 Renee Hennemann