Reducing proactive interference through constructivist learning instruction

Margaret B. Strome, The College of Wooster


In the current study, 98 first grade students participated in a series of lessons on two dimensional and three dimensional shapes to test for proactive interference. To reduce this effect, groups used math manipulatives to help increase recall. Results showed no significant interaction between lessons and manipulatives (F (1, 94) = .185, p = .668). However there was a significant effect of manipulatives on recall (F (1, 94) = 11.374, p = .001). The use of manipulatives significantly increases recall supporting the constructivist hands-on learning approach.