We introduce a two-stage theoretical framework of fire services that justifies the status of response time as a factor input. In the first stage, the provincial government distributes a budget to its cities, resulting in varied numbers of firefighters and fire engines in each city. In the second stage, each city fire department places its fire stations at spatially optimal locations that minimize expected response times. When a fire occurs, the outputs from these two stages are actualized into dispatch level, response time, and suppression time. These intermediate outputs are then transformed into inputs for producing service output, which is measured in terms of fire spread. Using a data set of 49,000 fire dispatches that occurred in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea in 2014-2018, we estimate a set of models for the above outputs. We find evidence for increasing returns to population scale, while empirically showing that response time and suppression time are indeed inputs for the production of fire services.


Burnell, Jim

Second Advisor

Frazier, Marian


Economics; Mathematics


Economic Theory | Other Economics | Public Economics


Fire services, Production, Response time, Suppression time, Service output

Publication Date


Degree Granted

Bachelor of Arts

Document Type

Senior Independent Study Thesis Exemplar



© Copyright 2020 Hyong-gu Hwang